Explanation of the Terms of the Art, spread through in the previous Article and in the following.
We thought that it would be more convenient and more comfortable to the reader to find the explanation of the terms of art used in the previous and following articles here, than to have to go look at the end of the book.
The term “row” is applied not only to the ruffles of a cap, but also to the sleeve ruffles, when there are several layers of cloth or lace one over the other; that's why one says, “Cap with two rows”, “Manchettes with three rows”, etc.
The term “band” is applied not only to coiffures and caps, but also to all lengths of linen, muslin, etc. of small width, which are used to edge several pieces of lingerie.
The “trimming” consists of bands that are placed around the edges of certain pieces of lingerie.
“The selvage at the bottom, on the front, etc.” are expressions which signify that the piece must be cut so that the selvage of the fabric is found on the front, at the bottom, etc. The actual selvage does not need to be used in the piece.
“Entoilage” is a lace which always edges a finer one. The wide entoilage is usually four inches wide, and the medium is about two inches.
A “levée” is a superfluous portion of fabric that is cut out of a piece; sometimes this levée is used elsewhere in the garment.
An “indentation” is a piece cut out of fabric in order to shape the edge.
A “drawstring” is a type of channel formed by a ribbon that is sewn to the fabric along both selvages, with a cord attached to both ends: the two cords are then passed under the ribbon to be brought out at the opposite side from where they were attached, and are used to tighten the drawstring when they are pulled.
A “little foot” is a narrow lace which edges an entoilage.
An “engrêlure” is a very small lace, or rather a little lace border.
A “head” is a narrow lace, when it borders a large one.
“En Pagode” is only said of sleeves, when they are made of the same pieces of fabric which make the body, rather than being added.
The “furnishings” are all the little pieces that are added to men's shirts when making them up, like the gussets, the collar, the shoulder pieces, etc. (See the man's shirt.)
“In close” refers to cutting the fabric on the bias and ending in a point.
“Head to tip” is an expression for when a length of fabric is being cut into several pieces for the same use, and they are turned so the top of one is opposite to the top of the other. (See Figure H, Plate 3.)
“Intercutting” or “interfitting” is a term that signifies how, when cutting convex and concave pieces, the convexity of one fits into the concavity of the other.
“Scalloping” is cutting the edge of a piece in waves, that is, in semicircles that are successively convex and concave.
“Bouillonner” is gathering at intervals, by knotting or sewing several pleats along a piece.
“Basting” is done when you fear that two pieces will become disarranged when you are sewing them in place. This refers to making large running stitches, or, depending on the case, large overcast stitches; you may also baste with pins. When the seams are finished, the basting is taken out.
“Freezing” is what it is called when a fabric and its lining are held in place. They are “frozen” in several rows with large running stitches before sewing, and this stitching is not taken out.
“Pleating” is done in two ways: namely, in standing pleats of the same size from side to side, such as the pleats for cuffs, etc. and in lying, flat pleats made on the fabric at a greater or lesser distance, or overlapping each other.
“Gathering” is a type of pleating which is done by passing a length of thread through little pleats that are made as equal as possible, then drawing them closer on said thread.
“Rolling” is done by placing the edge of the fabric between the forefinger and the thumb, and bringing it up by tightening them, which creates an edge imitating a little hem. It is essential to make the roll little and quite even from one end to the other.
“Quilting” means making running stitches across two fabrics which have cotton between them, following designs which are commonly little squares; this is done to hold the cotton for fear it will move.
A “false hem” is when the edge of a fabric is only turned up one time and sewn, whereas the true hem is only sewn when it has been turned under twice, as will be described later, in the section on stitches.